来源： 浏览： 发布日期：2019-12-19 14:35
2019年12月SAT亚太区写作考题所选取的文章为Steve Lipsher于2013年在The Denver Post 上发表的“ The value of professional photographers can’t be overstated（原文附后）”，其主要观点为：专业摄影师的价值是不容忽视的。
这篇文章与College Board发布的SAT Study Guide 2020里第157页Sample Passage 1（选文1）关注的问题有一定相似性。SAT Study Guide 2020上的文章作者是Peter S. Goodman，题目是“Foreign News at a Crisis Point”，于2013年发表于TheHuffingtonPost.com。
Citizen journalism就是“公民新闻”，指从新闻的采访写作，到编辑发布，都不假手于专业记者或编辑，完全由“读者”自己采写，这些读者则被称为citizen journalist（公民记者）。全世界第一位citizen journalism当属1998年在其个人博客中对克林顿Zip Gate性丑闻曝光的美国人德拉吉。
公民新闻相较于传统新闻的优点在于可以在第一时间在现场进行real-time reporting（实时报道）。相较mainstream media（主流媒体）而言，也多了更多的vividness（生动性）。在突发事件的报道中，citizen journalism正在发挥越来越重要的作用。
然而，SAT今年12月亚太考题与SAT Study Guide 2020上的“Foreign News at a Crisis Point”都深刻地分析了过于依赖citizen journalists的不良后果。
在描述非专业作品带来的负面影响时，文章作者引用了电视台9News的主持人Kyle Clark的评价：“Why is it that every time it snows that we whip out photos of our patio sets like we’re showing off baby photos of our kids? Is that really the best we can do?...Let’s be more original the next time the snow flies.”
文章一开始的切入点是一位有极高拍照热情的非专业摄影师，他的作品被Summit Daily News免费使用，乍看上去，这类事件对社会影响较为有限，而且影响仿佛仅限于当地（Summit County）。
比如在第8段，他指出”Of course, the issue isn’t limited to Summit County.”读者们便能得知，全国范围内的报纸几乎都存在同样的问题。
接下来，在第11段，作者说：”And it’s not just newspapers.”读者开始发现，在其它的媒体领域，不仅仅是报纸，专业的新闻摄影师生存之地也在不断被压缩。
“Any professional photographer these days can recount being asked to take photos for free or to accept insultingly low fees”。也就是说，在日常生活的方方面面，专业摄影师的价值都被低估了，他们付出了劳动和心血，却没有获得相应的报酬。
The value of professional photographers can’t be overstated
by Steve Lipsher
1.Bill Linfield is a friend, a great guy and a superb amateur photographer who takes pride in his exemplary wildlife and landscape photos.
2. So why is he persona non grata among the professional photographers in Summit County?
3. Because Linfield freely — and that’s the appropriate word here — shares his work with the Summit Daily News, which never replaced its beloved longtime photographer, Mark Fox, upon his retirement and which instead relies upon the kindness of strangers for its Page 1 photos.
4. “I take photos daily because I have a passion for it and enjoy sharing the beauty of where I am able to live and play,” Linfield said. “Besides, if I don’t share my photos, why am I taking them?”
5. Local professional photographers lament that Linfield and others offering their work without compensation are enabling the paper to devalue photography, which they contend remains an integral part of newspaper storytelling.
6. Matt Lit, a Summit County photography educator at Colorado Mountain College and a former news photographer, praises Linfield’s work as “quite stunning” but fears it is another step in the inexorable march toward the demise of professional photojournalism. Good photography lures in readers who, as a result, see the advertising that supports the news outlet, he said.
7. “Once upon a time, I used to earn money selling my photos,” Lit said. “If I sold a photo to a television station to use on their broadcast, that’s air time and that’s valuable stuff. What’s the equivalent ad rate for that amount of air time or for that amount of newspaper space?”
8. Of course, the issue isn’t limited to Summit County. Newspapers all across the country have been cutting photographer positions, with the Chicago Sun-Times in May taking the extreme position of eliminating its entire full-time photo staff, then saying four of the 28 will be rehired. (The Denver Post has not been immune to industry-wide downsizing, unfortunately, but it still retains the core of its top-drawer photographers, including two-time Pulitzer Prize winner Craig F. Walker.)
9. Last month, David Becker of PetaPixel pointed out that the annual American Society of News Editors newsroom census, compared year over year, shows that U.S. newspapers are employing 43 percent fewer photographers, videographers and artists than they were in 2000.
10. In many cases, media outlets now are asking reporters to take cameras with them on assignments or simply relying on “crowd sourcing,” in which “citizen journalists” — basically anyone with an iPhone in his pocket — can snap pictures and willingly share them.
11. And it’s not just newspapers.
12. Linfield’s work also has appeared periodically on 9News, where anchor Kyle Clark recently had the audacity to complain in a special on-air editorial that readers were sending in boring photos depicting snowfall on patio furniture.
13. “Why is it that every time it snows that we whip out photos of our patio sets like we’re showing off baby photos of our kids? Is that really the best we can do?” he grumbled. “We live in one of the most beautiful spots on Earth, but we point our cameras toward the back porch … . Let’s be more original the next time the snow flies.”
14. That’s right: Clark is protesting the quality of free photos that 9News receives from amateurs.
15. Summit County photographer friend of mine, Tim Faust, doesn’t fault the media for taking advantage of free photography but does think that complaints like those raised by Clark are a case of beggars can’t be choosers.
16. “It is supply and demand,” Faust said. “If people are willing to provide free images, then why should media pay for them? However, I take issue with a media outlet complaining about the lack of quality of their free images.”
17. Any professional photographer these days can recount being asked to take photos for free or to accept insultingly low fees: friends want a “quick” portrait, businesses request “cheap” images for their websites and brochures, wedding parties can’t understand why they need to pay so much for what they don’t realize typically amounts to more than just a day’s labor.
18. Yet just a few days ago, we were all reacquainted with some indelible 50-year-old images from newspapers that remind us how powerful good photography can be in telling a story: Jackie Kennedy standing stoically in her blood-stained pink dress and pillbox hat as LBJ took the oath of office on that crowded airplane, Ruby shooting Oswald, John-John saluting his father’s coffin.
19. It is a shame that professional photography is being so undervalued today, and that’s made even worse when media outlets exacerbate the impression that it’s not worth paying for good photos.
2019年12月SAT北美卷写作考题所选取的文章为Susan Wojcicki(时任著名视频网站YouTube CEO)于2014年在The Wall Street Journal 上发表的“Paid Maternity Leave Is Good for Business（原文附后）”其主要观点为：“带薪产假制度对于女性休假者本人、她的家庭、她所服务的公司都会产生积极的影响。”
技巧二：对调查或研究结果等的引用（citation of research and surveys）
比如，在第四段，作者引用了联合国的一项调查，她提到：“According to a survey released in May by the United Nations’International Labor Organization, the U.S. is the only country in the developed world that doesn’t offer government-mandated paid maternity leave.”以及第五段，她引用了美国劳工部的数据， “According to the Labor Department, that patchwork of corporate and state benefits covers only 12% of private workers. ”
较为明显的是，作者用了对比（contrast），来说明带薪休假的好处：“Mothers were able to take the time they needed to bond with their babies and return to their jobs feeling confident and ready. And it’s much better for Google’s bottom line—to avoid costly turnover, and to retain the valued expertise, skills and perspective of our employees who are mothers.”
Paid Maternity Leave Is Good for Business
by Susan Wojcicki
1. I was Google’s first employee to go on maternity leave. In 1999, I joined the startup that founders Larry Page and Sergey Brin had recently started in my garage. I was four months pregnant. At the time the company had no revenue and only 15 employees, almost all of whom were male. Joining a startup pregnant with my first child was risky, but Larry and Sergey assured me I’d have their support.
2. This month, I’ll go on maternity leave once again—my fifth time—joining the nearly 5,000 women who have done so since I joined Google. And though I’m now CEO of YouTube (which is owned by Google), I’ll be entitled to the same benefits as every single woman at the company who has a baby: 18 weeks of paid maternity leave.
3. Having experienced how valuable paid maternity leave is to me, my family and my career, I never thought of it as a privilege. But the sad truth is that paid maternity leave is rare in America, and the U.S. lags behind the rest of the world in providing for the needs of pregnant women and new mothers.
4. According to a survey released in May by the United Nations’ International Labor Organization, the U.S. is the only country in the developed world that doesn’t offer government-mandated paid maternity leave. Every other developed country offers paid maternity leave benefits through social-security programs, so businesses don’t have to shoulder the entire cost. Paid maternity leave isn’t just a First World perk—the U.S. is one of only two countries of the 185 surveyed that does not offer it. The other is Papua New Guinea.
5. There are two ways women in America can receive paid maternity leave. They can work for a generous employer that provides it as a benefit. Or they can live in one of the few states—California, Hawaii, New Jersey, New York and Rhode Island—that have publicly funded paid-maternity-leave laws. According to the Labor Department, that patchwork of corporate and state benefits covers only 12% of private workers. Low-wage earners, those in the bottom income quartile, have it much worse: only 5% get any paid maternity leave. The Family and Medical Leave Act of 1993 is a step in the right direction, but it is unpaid and doesn’t cover half the working women in the U.S.
6. In study after study, the ILO and other labor and health organizations have shown how harmful a lack of paid maternity leave can be for mothers and their babies. Many times when faced with insufficient maternity leave, mothers choose to drop out of the workforce, leading to a considerable loss of income during a woman’s most productive years. Or it can force a woman back to work too quickly, with adverse effects on her and her child’s health.
7. A quarter of all women in the U.S. return to work fewer than 10 days after giving birth, leaving them less time to bond with their children, making breast-feeding more difficult and increasing their risk of postpartum depression. According to the American Academy of Pediatrics, suboptimal breast-feeding causes higher rates of infant illness and hospitalization that cost billions of dollars annually.
8. Paid maternity leave is also good for business. After California instituted paid medical leave, a survey in 2011 by the Center for Economic and Policy Research found that 91% of employers said the policy either boosted profits or had no effect. They also noted improved productivity, higher morale and reduced turnover.
9. That last point is one we’ve seen at Google. When we increased paid maternity leave to 18 from 12 weeks in 2007, the rate at which new moms left Google fell by 50%. (We also increased paternity leave to 12 weeks from seven, as we know that also has a positive effect on families and our business.) Mothers were able to take the time they needed to bond with their babies and return to their jobs feeling confident and ready. And it’s much better for Google’s bottom line—to avoid costly turnover, and to retain the valued expertise, skills and perspective of our employees who are mothers.
10. Best of all, mothers come back to the workforce with new insights. I know from experience that being a mother gave me a broader sense of purpose, more compassion and a better ability to prioritize and get things done efficiently. It also helped me understand the specific needs and concerns of mothers, who make most household spending decisions and control more than $2 trillion of purchasing power in the U.S.
11. I’ve been lucky to have the support of a company that values motherhood as much as Google. And I’ve been lucky to live in a state like California that supports working mothers. But support for motherhood shouldn’t be a matter of luck; it should be a matter of course. Paid maternity leave is good for mothers, families and business. America should have the good sense to join nearly every other country in providing it.