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常州新航道 > 托福阅读 > 托福阅读中的逻辑混搭错误!

托福阅读中的逻辑混搭错误!

来源:      浏览:      发布日期:2019-11-26 15:21

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   托福阅读中的逻辑混搭错误!  一说到混搭,相信大家在托福阅读中并没有少见。这种错误类型几乎涵盖了一半以上的错误类型,可以说是托福出题人最拿手的伎俩。学生对于逻辑关系的无视,加上对于原词重现的执着,这种习惯使得我们面对混搭错误几乎防不胜防。新航道常州托福培训老师就带大家来说说到底逻辑关系会怎样混搭。 首先还是看一道题:

  Nearly any kind of plant of the forest understory can be part of a deer's diet. Where the forest inhibits the growth of grass and other meadow plants, the black-tailed deer browses on huckleberry, salal, dogwood, and almost any other shrub or herb. But this is fair-weather feeding. What keeps the black-tailed deer alive in the harsher seasons of plant decay and dormancy? One compensation for not hibernating is the built-in urge to migrate. Deer may move from high-elevation browse areas in summer down to the lowland areas in late fall. Even with snow on the ground, the high bushy understory is exposed; also snow and wind bring down leafy branches of cedar, hemlock, red alder, and other arboreal fodder.

  2. It can be inferred from the discussion in paragraph 2 that winter conditions

  ○cause some deer to hibernate

  ○make food unavailable in the highlands for deer

  ○make it easier for deer to locate understory plants

  ○prevent deer from migrating during the winter

  这是TPO4的一道推断题,题干问我们下面哪个关于冬天条件的描述是正确的。去原文中找冬天条件做定位,发现有两个事情都涉及到了冬天的条件。最后一句话中,提到了冬天条件下的两个事情。见下图:26103433x15p.png

  在第一件事中,原句提到了even with snow,结果understory is exposed

  在第二件事中,原句提到了snow and wind,结果bring down leafy branches

  两个事情的结果都是正向积极的,而两个事的前提也都是提到了冬天的条件——雪。于是乎会给人一个假象,就是C,冬天的条件(snow)对understory的定位起到了正向导致作用。结果C是错误答案。

  这个时候我们重新来看原文信息,不过这次我们关注逻辑关系:

26103448j1b7.png

  第一件事中,snow实际上处于让步信息,即使地面上覆盖着雪,understory也依然暴露,这件事中,snow其实并没有起到正向导致作用,相反,是想起到负向作用而没有成功,因此我给他起名叫做“负向未遂”

  第二件事中,snow确实跟wind一起,对后面bring down leafy branches起到了正面促进作用。这个时候再看C选项就会发现:C把第一件事的结果,混搭到了snow在第二件事上的原因作用。原文本来说的是即使覆盖着雪,低矮灌木丛也依然暴露,这件事中,冬天的条件并没有起到正向推出的作用。而选项C变成了正因为是冬天的条件,所以低矮植被容易被定位找到。 由于对逻辑关系的不敏感,导致我们没有看到让步关系even with被偷换成了因果关系。这道题,在我7年的教学生涯中,能够一次性作对的学生寥寥无几,看来大家过于关注信息本身是否出现,却对逻辑关系是否一致敏感度不够。 再看一道题

  In addition to finding an increase of suitable browse, like huckleberry and vine maple, Arthur Einarsen, longtime game biologist in the Pacific Northwest, found quality of browse in the open areas to be substantially more nutritive.

  11.Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

  ○Arthur Einarsen’s longtime family with the Pacific Northwest helped him discover areas where deer had an increase in suitable browse.

  ○Arthur Einarsen found that deforested feeding grounds provided deer with more and better food.

  ○Biologist like Einarsen believe it is important to find additional open areas with suitable browse for deer to inhabit.

  ○According to Einarsen, huckleberry and vine maple are examples of vegetation that may someday improve the nutrition of deer in the open areas of the Pacific Northwest.

26103504up97.png

  这是同一篇文章后面的简化题。正确答案是B这里不再详述。重点想请大家关注下D选项,huckleberry和vine maple在原文中本来是数量多的例子,但是在D选项中却成为了质量有提升(improve the nutrition)的例子。而原文中数量多和质量有营养是两个并列信息。常州托福培训老师分享的内容就到这里, 这两个题让我们见识到了托福在考察我们对于逻辑关系的敏感度。那么我们就要重视起来逻辑关系,尤其是看到原文出现平行并列信息的时候,一定要打起十二分的警惕,警惕是否出现原词重现但是逻辑混搭的情况。



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